KNOWLEDGE IN ASSESSMENT

Happy_53_tnbBefore I thought that assessment simply knows if students understand the lesson and to then give grades and teacher needs to give more attention in teaching the knowledge and skills that the school demands. Well now I realized the importance of assessment.

Assessment is a tool used in the classroom every day and its purpose is to measure a student’s mastery- knowledge or skills in a particular subject area. Assessment data shows a teacher or school administrators what the students have learned.

I remember in my reading it said that assessment drive students learning, but I think as a teacher- assessment should drive our instruction. It is important that our assessment is aligned with learning objectives and instructional activities to ensure that students are meeting and achieving the expectations.

For me formative assessment is the most significant when it comes to learning process. We must utilize formative assessments to assess where students are at. The results can direct us to our next step, if an adjustment in the instruction is needed or modify our strategies to accommodate the need of students. A periodic monitoring of student’s knowledge and determining the level of understanding will direct us to create more suitable activities.

school-clip-artI think it is important to incorporate a variety of assessments in both formative and summative assessments. Summative assessment must not just a standardized test but like formative assessment that allows students to demonstrate what they know in different ways. In this way a student who is not good in traditional assessment test type might be good at performance assessment. I think it is significant to practice more of performance assessment rather than spending too much time in factual test. Alternative assessment promotes creativity and critical thinking which the goal of education is.

I believe that effective assessment must be valid or measure what is intended, fair in giving all students an opportunity to succeed, and always give feedback to help students learn from their mistakes.

As a teacher I will continue to seek improvement in my teaching and how I assess my students. I will practice to develop my skill in writing rubric and writing better test questions. I will be more careful in assessing my students and let the assessment drives my instruction.

happy-person-clip-art

This picture shows how happy I am to learn so much in a short period of time. I think in taking an online course, it is our advantage if our FIC gives a variety of reading resources and study guide questions that direct our learning. I am honored once again to learn from the best. A big KOMMOL TATA (Thank you very much) Teacher Malou and to all my classmates.

 

 

 

Planning & Construction of Test

images20

The way I usually construct my test is simply get questions from the book or test bank that comes with it. It’s easy to comply with all the demands of work. Now that I learned the effective way of writing different types of traditional assessment, I can able to construct my own test. I can also identify those that are poorly crafted and improve it, especially if most of my resources are from internet. I believe that teachers must have the knowledge and skills to write an effective test.

Some of the problems in traditional assessment are:

  • The test questions are often unclear or vague
  • Questions measure only factual knowledge
  • Too little feedback is provided

Let me share my notes about different types of Traditional Assessment.

Multiple Choiceimages19

Strength:

  • It can be used to test all level of learners
  • Questions are adapted to wide range of content and objectives
  • Easy to administer and less time needs to complete
  • Can be easily and accurately be scored and avoid bias

read-books-that-you-enjoyLimitation:

  • It’s difficult and time consuming to construct
  • It’s difficult to come up with distractors

Suggestion for Writing MCT items

  • To use at least four alternatives
  • To use capital letters ( A B C D ) as response signs
  • Randomly distribute the correct answers
  • Put the alternatives in some logical order
  • Keep all the alternatives in similar format
  • Make alternatives approximately equal in length
  • Use negatively stated stems sparingly

Essay Test

Strength:

  • Easy to construct
  • Allows students to demonstrate ability to be creative, express opinion
  • Students less likely to guess

Limitation:studentwriting

  • It limits the amount of content tested
  • Time consuming to score
  • Without rubric, potentially unreliable scoring

Suggestion for Writing Essay Test Items

  • Questions must be clearly define
  • Give students an appropriate amount of time
  • Avoid the use of optional questions
  • Questions must be in different level of learning
  • Choose a scoring model
  • Prepare students to take essay test

In my opinion multiple choice and essay test are both best types of traditional assessment. I think both bring balance to the time and effort in test construction and scoring of work. I am a newbie in this area (include rubric) but I am willing to enhance my skill through continuing practice. images21

I know that it’s not just for my own sake as a teacher but it will bring an advantage to my students by giving the grades that are reliable and valid. The sample test construction that I have done probably not yet satisfying but I am open minded to accept criticism to help me improve the skill.

 

 

References:

Clay, B. (2001, October). Is This a Trick Question? A Short Guide to Writing Effective Test Questions. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=6PmcGOcdLB8%3D&t

Reiner, C., Bothell, T., Sudweeks, R., & Wood, B. (2002). Preparing Effective Essay Questions, A Self-directed Workbook for Educators. Retrieved from http://testing.byu.edu/info/handbooks/WritingEffectiveEssayQuestions.pdf

Helmenstine, M. (2001). Chemical Reactions – Types of Chemical Reactions, About.com Chemistry. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalreactions/a/reactiontypes.htm

Module 8: Something Good in Something Old

Traditional assessment is something that is hard to let go, just like eating rice for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. We are not satisfied eating without rice and for students a week will not be complete without any test or any form of assessment. Most common type of test that I experience during my school days are multiple choice, fill-in the blanks, true or false, and essay writing and the same type of test that I am commonly using in my science class.

educational_assessment_header

There are two categories of test item- objective and subjective. Objective test items are questions that have only one correct response whereas to subjective questions, students can give their own answer and allow them to be creative. Essay writing and other performance assessment are example of subjective type assessment.

The advantages of traditional assessment are: (Objective Type)

  • Its practical (less expensive)
  • Take little time to administer
  • Fast and easy to score
  • Avoid bias in grading
  • Can handed back for immediate feedback

Because of the advantages of traditional assessment, it is more appealing to teachers like me to use it in classroom assessment but I think it is significant to consider the intended learning outcomes and the selection of assessment method is appropriate.

LearningTriangleA good traditional assessment is difficult to develop, especially if we want the test to be reliable and has high validity. Planning, writing of test items, analyzing and revision are necessary steps. I thinks that it is very important that every teacher must be skilled in developing an effective test questions because if not “Students aren’t Failing Test but Test are Failing Students” is more likely to happen.

Revised Assignment #1

I’m one of those who are confused of what and how to do Assignment #1. After I posted my assignment I realized that what I have done is actually for Assignment #2, so I’m hoping that my work though it late will be consider by my FIC ( Teacher Malou…please..please..please).
Elementary Mathematics: Data Management
1. These are the skills and products that will be valued in my class.
Learning Objectives:
• Students should be able to acquire data through surveys.
• Students should be able to display data using bar graphs.
• Students should be able to interpret data and give a relevant recommendation.
2. These comprise the prior knowledge that I need my students to activate.
• Think-Pair-Share ( 10 minutes )
Ask yourself the three most common reasons for being late in class. Compare your answer to your classmate next to you. Find other four classmates to compare your answer. Share your answer and the result of your comparison with other students.
3. These are the teaching- learning activities we will engage in to develop the skills.
• Create a survey that will be given to all 10th grade students to know the 5 most common reasons of coming late to class.
• Make a graph that will show the survey data.
• Compare the graph with the other groups and give suggestion on a possible solution regarding the student’s late problem.
4. My Version: This is how I will modify the task to make it more suitable to assess the students in my class.
Design Task Activity
Title: Reasons for Being Late to Class
Background: Most of the 10th grade teachers are complaining about the chronic student tardiness. As the SBG- President you and the rest of the officers were assigned to find out the main reasons for being late in class.
Task: Each group will create a survey questionnaire to find out different reasons for being late in class. Each group will present their data by using a bar graph. Compare the result of your findings with another group and recommend some possible solution to student tardiness.
Audience: The audience for this survey data is the 10th grade teachers.
Purpose: The purpose of your graph is to show the 10th grade teachers the 5 main reasons for coming late to class and the number of students who have the same reason.
Procedure:
1. Divide the SBG officers into three groups.
2. Each group creates a survey questionnaire about “why students are late in class?”
3. Assume that there are nine sections in 10th grade each group will give the survey in 3 different sections.
4. Make a graph summarizing your group data.
5. Join with other group. Compare your graph with their graph. Find the 5 top most reasons for being late in class and prepare your written recommendation.
6. Present your graph to show your findings to all 10th grade teachers.
7. Present your written recommendation of possible solutions that will address the problem of students coming late to class.
5. I will use these criteria to gauge my students’ performance/skills/ products.
Bar Graph Scoring Rubric: (5 points each)
1. Demonstrate an understanding about the problem. ________ point (s)
2. The bar graph has all parts labeled correctly. ________ point (s)
3. The graph is colorful and lines are neatly drawn ________ point (s)
Presentation Scoring Rubric: (5 points)
4. Present a comprehensive and clear explanation about the collected data. ________ point (s)
Recommendation Scoring Rubric: (5 points each)
5. The idea is clear, fresh, and original ________ point (s)
6. The recommendation is doable. ________ point (s)
TOTAL: ________/ 30 points

High School Science: Water Quality
1. These are the skills and products that will be valued in my class.
Learning Objectives:
• Students will be able to apply the steps of scientific method.
• Students will be able to record and analyze test result.
• Students will be able to report the investigation findings.
2. These comprise the prior knowledge that I need my students to activate.
To activate student’s prior knowledge, I will use the Virtual Lab activity available at
http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/CT04/CT04.html
3. These are the teaching- learning activities we will engage in to develop the skills.
• Follow the steps of the scientific method.
• Conduct the drinking water testing using the test kits.
• Tabulate or graph the collected data
• Analyze the result of the investigation
• Oral report
4. My Version: This is how I will modify the task to make it more suitable to assess the students in my class.
Design Task Activity
Title: Drinking Water Testing
Background: Rain water is the primary drinking water supply for most of the islanders in Majuro who cannot afford to buy bottled drinking water. Rainwater catchment system is vulnerable to bacterial contamination. In Marshall Islands High School is most populated public school and have 10 rainwater catchment for drinking water. The school nurse reports a high cases of diarrhea, and the common to most student was drinking water from the catchment. The Principal asked the Science Club to conduct an investigation about the water contamination issue.
Task: Science Club members will work together to conduct a water quality testing around the school water catchment. Use the investigation data to prove or disprove the hypotheses. Report the result of the investigation to the school administration, staff, and PTA officers.
Audience: The audiences in this activity are school administration, staff, and PTA officers.
Purpose: The purpose of your investigation is to test the water catchment for contamination that is the possible caused of diarrhea cases in school.
Procedure:
1. Distribute 10 sterile bottles to members and get sample water from each water catchment in the campus. Water sample will be tested from total coli forms and E. coli.
2. Using the drinking water test kits, follow the procedures below:
o Put the sample water into a bacterial test vial
o Wait for 12 hours, for the result- if the water remains clear- it means negative from contamination and if it turns black means positive from contamination.
3. Summarize the data and prepare to report the findings.

5. I will use these criteria to gauge my students’ performance/skills/ products.
Scoring Rubric
1. Lab report is arranged accordingly. (10 Points) ________ points
2. The data is tabulated or graph in a way that is easy to understand. (10 points) ________ points
3. Detailed discussion of the evidence is provided. (10 points) ________ points
4. The conclusion is strong and well summarized. (10 points) ________ points
TOTAL: ________/ 40 points

Am I Ready To Shift?

challengeIf I were to compare traditional assessment to alternative assessment it will be:

  • Students are considered as passive learners in TA while in AA they are active learners.
  • In TA assumes that knowledge has a single consensual meaning while in AA knowledge has a diverse interpretation or multiple meanings.
  • In TA teachers feed students with information while in AA teachers facilitate the learning.
  • TA basically represents the LOTS while AA represents the HOTS.
  • TA focused on cognitive abilities of the students while in AA focuses not only with cognitive but affective abilities as well.
  • In TA student’s products are valued more while in AA the process is valued as well as product.
  •  In TA it focused on individual student’s performance while collaborative learning is valued in AA.
  • In TA teachers make the decisions about what is learned and how it is assessed while in AA students participate in decision making on what to learn and in creating the criteria that will be used in the assessment.

In my perspective there should be a balance implementation of Traditional Assessment and Alternative Assessment in any subject area. I personally used traditional assessment most of the time, why you may ask that is because of limited time. When it comes to Final Examination (summative assessment) every quarter 2-3 days is given to complete and submit our grades in all classes that we are handling. One way that can workout with such a short time is to give questions that only have one correct answer like multiple choice, matching type, or fill in the blanks. If I will give questions that are essay type exam that will take me a week to complete all five sections that I’m handling.
Alternative assessment is also practice in my classes; my students are very active in doing the assessment task. But like traditional assessment there is also a disadvantage in using performance-based assessment, such as its time consuming. Not just few days but it will take a few weeks, from research, gathering materials needed, time to use a computer, designing task, and developing a fair and effective rubric with students. Another challenged that I encounter was a need for a colleague to help you rating or grading the product of students. I prefer using alternative assessment during formative process, so that feedback will be given to students scaffolding.
I am still a newbie when it comes to alternative assessment, and there’s still room for improvement before I can say that I’m confident to shift from traditional to alternative assessment.

Reference:

Anderson, R.S. (1998). Why Talk About Different Ways to Grade? The Shift from Traditional Assessment to Alternative Assessment. In New Directions For Teaching And Learning, 74, 5-16. Retrieved at http://www.jcu.edu/academic/planassess/pdf/Assessment%20Resources/Rubrics/Other%20Rubric%20Development%20Resources/Different%20ways%20to%20Grade.pdf

Implication of Assessment

Let me share with you a short story of mine that is related to implication of assessment on learning.
When I was in high school I remember that one of my teachers in math always gives us the questions in the exam, 3 days before the final examination day. Since we already knew the questions and we had a chance to compare our answers, none of us failed the exam (surface learning). I never thought of actually avoiding the temptation of copying answers for those questions that I can’t solve. I knew that I’m not a math person and no plan to take up engineering course, so I don’t need to take it seriously (stereotyping). I think those are the main reasons why I had low self- esteem and test anxiety during the 1st few months in college. I need to seek help in order to understand our lesson in math, because none of it was taught in high school or maybe I didn’t pay attention. I really had a hard time coping but instead of giving- up (motivation & goal setting), I set my goal “to pass” so I attended a tutoring session and spend lots of time practicing problem solving (persistence) until I understood and successfully catch up (deep learning). Though I still believe that I’m not a math person, the pressure of competing with other students and doing everything you can to have a good grade because there is no second chance pushed me to work hard ( high- stakes competition).

images02Analyzing my experience, I can infer that there is negative and positive implication of assessment on learning.

Positive Implication of Assessment
• I became actively involved in my own learning in order to catch up with my math class.
• I became more motivated to work hard to learn the lesson and to pass the math class.
• I learned to monitor my progress through practice, figuring out what strategies works for me and seek help.
• I realized that even I’m not a math person it’s not a valid reason to hinder myself from deep learning.

Negative Implication of Assessment

• I realized the disadvantage in our side on how our teacher encouraged us in surface approach of learning. I passed my high school math but not actually understand it.
• The low assessment result makes me developed a test anxiety in math and to have a low self-esteem.
• I felt pressured for not meeting the standard while my classmate seems to be relaxed at all times.

images05

As a teacher, I personally commit myself to use assessment results to address the needs of my students. I will always put in mind that scaffolding is interwoven with formative assessment that can help students to develop a deep approach in learning. I will assure that students be actively involved in their own learning by modeling and teaching them how to be a self-regulated learner.

Own It !

During the first lesson, I learned about some new terms related to assessment though some of it was already familiar but not totally understood. Reading the different definition of my classmates, taking note of the comments made by Teacher Malou, and trying to avoid plagiarism by producing an original work, I made my definition based on my understanding of each term.

images07

fairhaven.edu

1. Assessment is one method that is commonly used to gather data about student knowledge and skills in a set period of time. This data can be useful in analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of students, so that the teacher can help the student to be advanced or improve their learning.

2. Testing is one form of assessment that is used to measure and determine the students’ level of understanding.

3. Grading is a process of measuring and rating the level of students’ performance and achievements in class.

4. Measurement is like a balance scale that is used to weigh the progress made by the students.

5. Evaluation is a process of judging the students after a careful study with all assessment data.

6. Diagnostic assessment is a type of assessment given to students before introducing the lesson, in order to identify the prior knowledge and misconception known by the student.

7. Summative assessment is a type of assessment that has a set standard to achieve the curriculum goal and usually given at the end of the unit / course, examples; Final examination, NSAT.

8. Formative assessment is a type of assessment that is given to student for building a deeper knowledge and performance to meet the learning goals. Example: homework, observation, lab work, reporting, and quizzes.

9. Informal assessment is one way of assessing students without necessarily grading them, but it’s more focused in monitoring student performance. Formative instructional methods can be informal assessment.
10. Formal assessment is one way of assessing students based with set standard and its always graded.

11. Validity refers to the accuracy of assessment data that measured the alignment of learning objective, instructional methods, and assessment.

12. Reliability refers to the consistency of data gathered in a multiple method of assessment given to students.

13. Norm-referenced assessment is a kind of assessment where students are competing with each other and used that data to rank their performance.

14. Criterion –referenced assessment is a kind of assessment where a student strives to meet the predetermined standard, as a result students can work together with less pressure.

I welcome any correction or suggestion for improvement. 🙂